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September 23, 2020

Analyzing an underground piping system presents circumstances quite different from those encountered when analyzing plant piping. The major problem is the accurate modeling, using point restraints, of the continuous effects of soil-pipe interaction. The pipe-soil inter...

September 22, 2020

The characteristic of wrapped fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) pipe which distinguishes it from other piping materials is that it is orthotropic—the material has different properties in the longitudinal and hoop directions — and can therefore not be modeled by the s...

September 21, 2020

Cold spring is the process of offsetting (or pre-loading) the piping system with displacement loads (usually accomplished by cutting short or long the pipe runs between two anchors) for the purpose of reducing the absolute expansion load on the system. Cold spring is u...

September 20, 2020

Stress analysis is a science and an art performed behind the scenes of a project and invisible to the average observer; invisible unless something fails. Sure, there are pipe supports but they can be passed off as keeping the pipe off the ground in the battle with grav...

September 19, 2020

As discussed elsewhere in these seminar notes, CNODES (short for connecting nodes) are used with a restraint whenever a point in the piping system is retrained against another point in the system. The CNODE point may be physically on a vessel, a steel structure, or ano...

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