UA-69298255-1 UA-69298255-2

September 21, 2020

Cold spring is the process of offsetting (or pre-loading) the piping system with displacement loads (usually accomplished by cutting short or long the pipe runs between two anchors) for the purpose of reducing the absolute expansion load on the system. Cold spring is u...

September 19, 2020

As discussed elsewhere in these seminar notes, CNODES (short for connecting nodes) are used with a restraint whenever a point in the piping system is retrained against another point in the system. The CNODE point may be physically on a vessel, a steel structure, or ano...

September 17, 2020

Elements of structural steel members may be incorporated into the model of the piping system through the use of the structural steel modeler. These elements may vary from a single member (such as a saddle, welded to the pipe), to a complete restraint structure, to a co...

September 16, 2020

In Section 2.3.3 of these seminar notes the significant effect that restraint stiffnesses may have on the piping system was described. Assuming restraints are rigid (when they are far from rigid) can lead to grossly conservative designs, possibly resulting in the unnec...

September 7, 2020

A large rotation restraint is a restraint which rotates away from its original line of action due to a pipe movement in a direction orthogonal to the original line of action. This may occur when the restraint is provided by a rod or a strut and the orthogonal displacem...

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