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Closures are covered in para. 304.4.1. Listed components, such as ASME B16.9 pipe caps, can be used for closures. The other two options provided in ASME B31.3 are to design the closure in accordance with ASME BPVC Section VIII, Division 1, or to qualify it as an unlisted component in accordance with para. 304.7.2 (see Section 4.15). Specific references to ASME BPVC, Section VIII, Division 1 paragraphs are provided for ellipsoidal, torispherical, hemispherical, conical, torico
Bends were required to have, after bending, a wall thickness at least equal to the minimum required wall thickness for straight pipe in para. 304.2.1. However, this was changed in the 2000 Addendum. The Lorenz equation (ca. 1910) was included; it provides a means of calculating the required wall thickness. Note that the prior requirement that simply stated the thickness should be the same as required for straight pipe was deleted. The new requirement is more conservative for
Some specific types of branch connections are presumed to be acceptable. This, of course, includes listed fittings (e.g., ASME B16.9 tees and MSS SP-97 branch connection fittings). It also includes the following: For branch connections DN 50 (NPS 2) or less that do not exceed one-fourth of the nominal size of the run pipe, threaded or socket welding couplings or half-couplings (Class 2000 or greater) are presumed to provide sufficient reinforcement as long as the minimum thic
Branch connections under external pressure are covered in para. 304.3.6. The same rules described in Sections 4.4 and 4.5 are used. However, only one-half of the area described in Section 4.4, covering welded branch connections, requires replacement. In other words, only one-half of the area A1 requires replacement. Also, the thicknesses used in the calculation are the required thicknesses for the external pressure condition. #Little_PEng. #BranchConnectionsUnderExternalPress