As described in Introduction to Pipe Stress Analysis, the pipe stress analyst is concerned with two types of loads — primary and secondary. Not only are the causes and the failure modes of these two loading types quite different, but not surprisingly, the solutions to these two types of loading are usually different as well. In fact, the solution to a problem caused by one of the loading types often causes a problem with the other loading type. Therefore, a compromise must often be reached in order to find the solution to these two types of loading.
Note that primary loads are usually classified further, according to their duration of loading. Those primary loads which are nearly always present throughout operation are called sustained loads, while those which occur less frequently are called occasional loads. The methods of resisting these two types of loads are similar, with the main difference being found in the use of a higher allowable stress for occasional loads (as seen in Introduction to Pipe Stress Analysis)
2.2 Designing For Sustained Loads — Weight
2.3 Designing For Expansion Loads
2.3.1 Magnitude of Thermal Load 2.3.2 Guided Cantilever Method 2.3.3 Refining the Model Through the Use of Restraint Stiffnesses 2.3.4 Use of Expansion Loops 2.3.5 Simplified Expansion Stress Check 2.3.6 Stress Reduction through Use of Expansion Joints 2.3.7 Expansion Stress — Other Solutions
2.4 Hanger Design
2.4.1 Variable Spring Hanger Design Basics 2.4.2 Load Variation 2.4.3 Hanger Selection Table 2.4.4 Hanger Design Process — Restrained Weight, Free Thermal, and More.. 2.4.5 Restraint Placement Using Distance to First Rigid Criteria 2.4.6 Notes on Hanger Design 2.4.7 CAESAR II Hanger Design Control and Options