UA-69298255-1 UA-69298255-2

CSA Z662 (Oil and gas pipeline systems)

1 Scope 2 Reference publications and definitions 2.1 Reference publications 2.2 Definitions 3 Safety and loss management systems 3.1 General 3.2 Pipeline system integrity management program 3.3 Engineering assessments 3.3.1 General 3.3.2 Engineering assessment process 3.3.3 Documentation 3.4 Risk management 4 Design 4.1 General 4.2 Design conditions 4.2.1 General 4.2.2 Temperature 4.2.3 Sustained force and wind loading 4.2.4 Other loading and dynamic effects 4.3 Design criteria

4.3.1 General 4.3.2 Class location assessment areas 4.3.3 Class location designations 4.3.4 Class location end boundaries 4.3.5 Pressure design for steel pipe — General 4.3.6 Pressure design for steel pipe — Design factor (F) 4.3.7 Pressure design for steel pipe — Location factor (L) 4.3.8 Pressure design for steel pipe — Joint factor (J) 4.3.9 Pressure design for steel pipe — Temperature factor (T) 4.3.10 Pressure design for steel pipe — Allowances 4.3.11 Pressure design for steel pipe — Wall thickness 4.3.12 Pressure design for components — General 4.3.13 Pressure design for components — Closures 4.3.14 Pressure design for components — Elbows 4.3.15 Pressure design for components — Tees and crosses 4.3.16 Pressure design for components — Branch connections 4.3.17 Pressure design for components — Integrally reinforced extruded outlet headers 4.3.18 Pressure design for components — Welded branch connections 4.3.19 Pressure design for components — Reinforcement of single openings 4.3.20 Pressure design for components — Reinforcement of multiple openings 4.4 Valve location and spacing 4.5 Selection and limitation of piping joints 4.5.1 Buttwelded joints 4.5.2 Threaded joints 4.5.3 Sleeve, coupled, mechanical interference fit, and other patented joints 4.5.4 Additional requirements for mechanical interference fit joints 4.6 Flexibility and stress analysis — General stress design 4.6.1 Applicability 4.6.2 Stress design of restrained and unrestrained portions of pipeline systems 4.6.3 Discontinuity stresses 4.6.4 Supplemental stress design 4.6.5 Hoop stress 4.6.6 Steel properties 4.7 Flexibility and stress analysis — Stress design for restrained portions of pipeline systems 4.7.1 Combined hoop and longitudinal stresses 4.7.2 Combined stresses for restrained spans 4.7.3 Anchors and restraints 4.8 Flexibility and stress analysis — Stress design for unrestrained portions of pipeline systems 4.9 Flexibility and stress analysis — Loads on pipe-supporting elements 4.9.1 General 4.9.2 Supports and braces 4.10 Flexibility and stress analysis — Design of pipe-supporting elements 4.11 Cover and clearance 4.12 Crossings 4.12.1 General 4.12.2 Crossings of utilities 4.12.3 Crossings of roads and railways 4.12.4 Crossings of water

4.13 Requirements for pipelines in proximity to electrical transmission lines and associated facilities 4.13.1 General 4.13.2 Effects on pipelines in proximity to high-voltage DC lines 4.13.3 Safety requirements 4.14 Design of compressor stations over 750 kW and pump stations over 375 kW 4.14.1 General 4.14.2 Design of compressor stations over 750 kW 4.14.3 Design of pump stations over 375 kW 4.15 Liquid storage in oil pipeline pump stations, tank farms, and terminals 4.15.1 Aboveground tanks over 4000 L 4.15.2 Aboveground tanks of 4000 L or less 4.15.3 Underground tanks 132 4.15.4 Pressure spheres, bullets, and ancillary vessels 4.15.5 Pipe-type storage vessels 4.16 Gas storage in pipe-type and bottle-type holders 4.16.1 General 4.16.2 Aboveground installations 4.16.3 Underground installations 4.17 Vaults 4.17.1 Structural design 4.17.2 Location 4.17.3 Vault ventilation 4.17.4 Drainage and waterproofing 4.18 Pressure control and overpressure protection of piping 4.18.1 General 4.18.2 General design requirements for systems for pressure control and overpressure protection 4.18.3 Additional design requirements for pressure-relieving installations 4.18.4 Additional overpressure-protection requirements for compressor and pump stations 4.19 Instrument, control, and sampling piping 4.20 Leak detection capability 4.21 Odorization 4.22 Requirements for pipelines installed by horizontal directional drilling 5 Materials 5.1 Qualification of materials 5.2 Steel materials and gaskets 5.2.1 Design temperatures — Steel materials 5.2.2 Notch toughness requirements — Steel pipe 5.2.3 Notch toughness requirements — Steel components 5.2.4 Steel pipe 5.2.5 Steel components — General 5.2.6 Steel components — Flanges 5.2.7 Bolting 5.2.8 Gaskets 5.2.9 Steel components — Fittings 5.3 Other materials 5.3.1 Aluminum piping

5.3.2 Polyethylene pipe and fittings 5.3.3 Cast iron components 5.3.4 Copper and copper-based alloys 5.3.5 Stainless steels 5.3.6 Reinforced composite pipe and fittings 5.3.7 Nonferrous flanges 5.3.8 Other alloys and composites 5.3.9 External coatings for pipe and piping 5.4 Oilfield water service 5.5 Cement-mortar linings 5.6 Reuse of materials 5.7 Records of materials 5.8 Engineering assessments 6 Transportation, handling, and installation 6.1 General 6.2 Activities on pipeline rights-of-way 6.2.1 Clearing, grading, and ground disturbances 6.2.2 Pipe and components handling 6.2.3 Bends and elbows in steel piping 6.2.4 Alignment and welding 6.2.5 Protective coatings 6.2.6 Ditching and lowering-in 6.2.7 Backfilling 6.2.8 Internal cleaning 6.2.9 Clean-up and restoration 6.2.10 Installation of crossings 6.2.11 Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) 6.3 Pipe and component surface requirements applicable to steel piping 6.3.1 Pipe and component manufacturing defects detected during installation inspection 6.3.2 Field repair of gouges and grooves in pipe 6.3.3 Dents in pipe 6.3.4 Ripples, wrinkles, buckles, and out-of-roundness 6.3.5 Removal of cracks in circumferential butt welds and in fillet welds 6.3.6 Field repair of gouges, grooves, and dents in components 6.3.7 Material acceptability 6.4 Electrical test leads on pipeline systems 6.5 Inspection 6.6 Precautions to avoid uncontrolled fires 7 Joining 7.1 General 164 7.2 Arc and gas welding — General 7.3 Arc and gas welding — Joint configurations 7.3.1 Butt welds 7.3.2 Fillet welds 7.4 Arc and gas welding — Welding equipment 7.5 Arc and gas welding — Materials 7.5.1 Pipe and components

7.5.2 Filler metals and fluxes 7.5.3 Shielding gases 7.6 Arc and gas welding — Qualification of welding procedure specifications 7.6.1 General 7.6.2 Company approval 7.6.3 Records 7.6.4 Welding procedure specifications 7.6.5 Essential changes for qualification of welding procedure specifications 7.7 Arc and gas welding — Testing for qualification of welding procedure specifications and qualification of welders 7.7.1 Welding of test joints 7.7.2 Testing of butt welds — General 7.7.3 Testing of butt welds — Tension test 7.7.4 Testing of butt welds — Nick-break test 7.7.5 Testing of butt welds — Root-bend and face-bend tests 7.7.6 Testing of butt welds — Side-bend test 7.7.7 Testing of fillet welds and branch connection welds — Root-break test 7.7.8 Testing of fillet welds and branch connection welds — Macrosection test 7.7.9 Additional testing of partial-penetration butt welds 7.8 Arc and gas welding — Qualification of welders 7.8.1 General 7.8.2 Qualification range 7.8.3 Special qualification — Butt welds 7.8.4 Visual inspection 7.8.5 Qualification of welders by visual and nondestructive inspection 7.8.6 Retests 7.8.7 Records of qualified welders 7.9 Arc and gas welding — Production welding 7.9.1 General 7.9.2 Alignment and root gap 7.9.3 Grounding 7.9.4 Use of line-up clamps — Butt welds 7.9.5 Relative movement 7.9.6 Bevelled ends 7.9.7 Weather conditions 7.9.8 Clearance 7.9.9 Cleaning between beads 7.9.10 Position welding 7.9.11 Roll welding 7.9.12 Identification of welds 7.9.13 Seal welding 7.9.14 Fillet welds 7.9.15 Preheating, interpass temperature control, controlled cooling, and stress relieving 7.9.16 Stress relieving 7.10 Arc and gas welding — Inspection and testing of production welds 7.10.1 General 7.10.2 Visual inspection 7.10.3 Mandatory nondestructive inspection 7.10.4 Nondestructive inspection

7.10.5 Destructive testing 7.10.6 Disposition of defective welds 7.11 Arc and gas welding — Standards of acceptability for nondestructive inspection 7.11.1 General 7.11.2 Weld crown 7.11.3 Incomplete penetration of the root bead 7.11.4 Incomplete fusion 7.11.5 Internal concavity 7.11.6 Undercut 7.11.7 Incomplete fusion due to cold lap 7.11.8 Lack of cross-penetration 7.11.9 Elongated slag inclusions 7.11.10 Hollow bead 7.11.11 Burn-through areas 7.11.12 Isolated slag inclusions 7.11.13 Spherical porosity 7.11.14 Wormhole porosity 7.11.15 Cracks and arc burns 7.11.16 Unequal leg length — Fillet welds 7.11.17 Accumulation of imperfections 7.11.18 Weld conditions limiting radiographic interpretation 7.12 Arc and gas welding — Repair of welds containing repairable defects 7.12.1 Partial-penetration butt welds 7.12.2 Authorization for repairs 7.12.3 Repair procedures 7.12.4 Removal of arc burns in weld areas 7.12.5 Removal of cracks in circumferential butt welds and in fillet welds 7.12.6 Inspection of repairs 7.13 Arc and gas welding — Materials and equipment for radiographic inspection 7.13.1 General 7.13.2 Radiographic procedure 7.13.3 Radiation sources 7.13.4 Imaging media 7.13.5 Screens 7.13.6 Image quality indicators 7.13.7 Comparator shims 7.14 Arc and gas welding — Production of radiographs 7.14.1 Radiation source location 7.14.2 Geometric relationship 7.14.3 Size of radiation field 7.14.4 Location of image quality indicators 7.14.5 Radiographic image identification markers 7.14.6 Processing of radiographic images 7.14.7 Radiation protection 7.14.8 Radiographers 7.14.9 Retention of radiographic records 7.15 Arc and gas welding — Ultrasonic inspection of circumferential butt welds in piping 7.15.1 Methods 7.15.2 Terminology

7.15.3 General 7.15.4 Equipment and supplies — General 7.15.5 Equipment and supplies — Additional requirements for mechanized inspection systems 7.15.6 Qualification of ultrasonic inspectors 7.15.7 Calibration 7.15.8 Inspection procedure for production welds 7.15.9 Inspection procedure for production welds — Additional requirements for mechanized inspection 7.15.10 Standards of acceptability for ultrasonic inspection 7.15.11 Ultrasonic inspection reports and records 7.16 Mechanical interference fit joints 7.16.1 General 7.16.2 Qualification of joining procedure specifications 7.16.3 Qualification of operators 7.16.4 Inspection procedures 7.17 Welding on in-service piping 7.17.1 General 7.17.2 Fillet welds and branch connection welds on liquid-filled piping or flowing-gas piping and direct deposition welds on flowing-gas piping 7.17.3 Essential changes for qualification of welding procedure specifications intended for welding on in-service piping 7.17.4 Fillet welds and branch connection welds — Face bend test 7.17.5 Fillet welds and branch connection welds — Macroexamination and hardness tests 7.17.6 Qualification of welding procedure specifications and welders for direct deposition welds 7.17.7 Nondestructive inspection of welds made on in-service piping 8 Pressure testing 8.1 General 8.2 Safety during pressure tests 8.3 Compressor and pump station piping 8.4 Instrument and control piping 8.5 Test-head assemblies 8.6 Testing procedures and techniques 8.7 Piping to be operated at pressure greater than 700 kPa 8.7.1 Strength and leak tests 8.7.2 Pressure-test mediums 8.7.3 Minimum strength and leak test pressures 8.7.4 Maximum strength and leak test pressures 8.7.5 Duration of tests 8.7.6 Maximum operating pressures 8.7.7 Pressure-test measurements and records 8.8 Piping intended to be operated at pressures of 700 kPa or less 8.8.1 Strength and leak tests 8.8.2 Pressure-test mediums 8.8.3 Minimum leak test pressures 8.8.4 Maximum leak test pressures 8.8.5 Duration of tests 8.8.6 Maximum operating pressures

8.8.7 Pressure-test measurements and records 8.9 Leaks and ruptures during pressure tests 8.10 Disposal of pressure-test mediums 8.11 Cleaning and drying 8.12 Tie-ins of tested sections 9 Corrosion control 9.1 General 9.2 Selection of external protective coatings for buried or submerged piping 9.3 Application and inspection of external protective coatings for buried or submerged piping 9.4 Storage, handling, transportation, and installation of coated pipe and components 9.5 Cathodic protection — Design and installation 9.6 Electrical isolation 9.7 Electrical interference 9.7.1 Direct current 9.7.2 Alternating current and lightning 9.8 Corrosion control test stations 9.9 Operation and maintenance of impressed current and sacrificial cathodic protection systems 9.10 Internal corrosion control 9.10.1 Susceptibility to internal corrosion 9.10.2 Mitigation 9.10.3 Monitoring 9.11 Corrosion control records 10 Operating, maintenance, and upgrading 10.1 Engineering assessments of existing pipelines 10.2 Safety 10.2.1 Training programs 10.2.2 Employee information 10.2.3 Supervisor responsibility 10.2.4 Hazards 10.2.5 Security 10.2.6 Work sites 10.2.7 Firefighting and special equipment 10.2.8 In-service pipelines 10.2.9 Additional precautions for pipeline systems transporting high-vapour-pressure hydrocarbons 10.2.10 Fluids containing H2S 10.2.11 Carbon dioxide pipelines and gas pipelines containing predominantly CO2 10.2.12 Steam distribution pipelines 10.3 Integrity of pipeline systems 10.3.1 Pipeline system integrity management program 10.3.2 Integrity of existing pipeline systems 10.3.3 Leak detection for liquid hydrocarbon pipeline systems 10.3.4 Leak detection for gas pipeline systems and carbon dioxide pipeline systems 10.3.5 Leak detection for oilfield water and multiphase pipeline systems 10.3.6 Pipeline system incident investigations

10.3.7 Change in service fluid 10.3.8 Upgrading to a higher maximum operating pressure 10.3.9 Pressure testing existing piping 10.4 Records 10.4.1 General 10.4.2 Pipeline systems 10.4.3 Pipeline emergency records 10.4.4 Pipeline system incidents 10.4.5 Pressure-test records 10.5 Operating and maintenance procedures 10.5.1 General 10.5.2 Pipeline emergencies 10.5.3 Pipeline identification 10.5.4 Signs at stations and other facilities 10.5.5 Ground disturbance 10.5.6 Odorization 10.5.7 Precautions to avoid unintentional ignition of gas-air mixtures or hydrocarbon liquids 10.5.8 Environmental effects 10.6 Right-of-way inspection and maintenance 10.6.1 Pipeline patrolling 10.6.2 Vegetation control 10.6.3 Exposed facilities 10.6.4 Crossings 10.7 Change of class location 10.8 Crossings of existing pipelines 10.9 Operation and maintenance of facilities and equipment 10.9.1 Compressor and pump stations 10.9.2 Aboveground tanks and pressure vessels 10.9.3 Underground storage 10.9.4 Pipe-type and bottle-type gas holders and pipe-type storage vessels 10.9.5 Pressure-control, pressure-limiting, and pressure-relieving systems 10.9.6 Valves 10.9.7 Vaults 10.9.8 Quick opening closures 10.10 Evaluation of imperfections 10.10.1 General 10.10.2 Corrosion imperfections in pipe 10.10.3 Gouges, grooves, and arc burns in pipe 10.10.4 Dents in pipe 10.10.5 Pipe body surface cracks 10.10.6 Weld imperfections in field circumferential welds 10.10.7 Weld imperfections in mill seam welds and mill circumferential welds 10.10.8 Ripples, wrinkles, and buckles in steel pipe 10.11 Permanent repair methods 10.11.1 General 10.11.2 Grinding repairs 10.11.3 Piping replacements 10.11.4 Repair sleeves for pipe 10.11.5 Defect removal by hot tapping

10.11.6 Direct deposition welding 10.12 Temporary repair methods 10.12.1 General 10.12.2 Composite reinforcement repair sleeves 10.13 Maintenance welding 10.13.1 General 10.13.2 In-service piping 10.14 Pipeline hot taps 10.14.1 General 10.14.2 Pipe preparation 10.14.3 Parameters 10.15 Deactivation and reactivation of piping 10.15.1 Deactivation of piping 10.15.2 Reactivation of piping 10.16 Abandonment of pipelines and pipe-type storage vessels 10.16.1 General 10.16.2 Buried pipelines 10.16.3 Removal of related surface equipment 10.16.4 Aboveground pipelines 10.16.5 Records 10.17 Abandonment of pipeline related facilities 10.17.1 General 10.17.2 Underground vaults and closed top pits 10.17.3 Aboveground tanks and pressure vessels 10.17.4 Underground storage tanks 11 Offshore steel pipelines 11.1 Applicability 11.2 Design — General 11.3 Design information 11.3.1 Pipeline route 11.3.2 Route survey and data acquisition 11.3.3 Pipeline operating conditions 11.4 Design and load conditions 11.5 Functional loads 11.6 Environmental loads 11.6.1 General 11.6.2 Wind forces 11.6.3 Hydrodynamic loads — General 11.6.4 Wave-induced and current-induced hydrodynamic loads 11.6.5 Loads due to ice conditions and regional ice features 11.6.6 Seismic activity 11.6.7 Loads arising from marine growth 11.6.8 Indirect environmental loads 11.6.9 Accidental loads 11.7 Design analysis 11.8 Design for mechanical strength 11.8.1 Design criteria for installation 11.8.2 Design criteria for pressure testing

11.8.3 Design criteria for operation 11.8.4 Determination of stresses 11.8.5 Pipe wall thickness specification 11.8.6 Strain-based design 11.8.7 Strain-based design criteria 11.9 Design for thermal expansion 11.10 Design for on-bottom stability 11.11 Design for fatigue life 11.12 Design for free spans, anchoring, and supports 11.13 Design for shore approaches 11.14 Design for components 11.15 Design for crossings 11.16 Pipeline components and fabrication details 11.16.1 General 11.16.2 Supports, braces, anchors, and buckle arresters 11.16.3 Mechanical connectors 11.16.4 Welded branch connections and reinforcements 11.16.5 Reducers 11.16.6 Weight-coating 11.16.7 Thermal insulation 11.17 Pipeline pressure control 11.18 Leak detection 11.19 Emergency shutdown valve 11.20 Materials 11.20.1 General 11.20.2 Pipe 11.20.3 Fittings, flanges, and valves 11.21 Installation 11.21.1 General 11.21.2 Transportation, handling, and storage of materials 11.21.3 Ancillary equipment and specialty items 11.21.4 Installation procedures 11.21.5 Installation inspection 11.21.6 Repair of pipe and components prior to installation 11.21.7 Repair of pipelines after installation 11.21.8 As-built surveys 11.21.9 Commissioning 11.22 Welding 11.22.1 General 11.22.2 Qualification of welding procedures 11.22.3 Testing of welded joints — Pipe butt welds 11.22.4 Production welding 11.22.5 Underwater welding 11.23 Mechanical connectors 11.24 Pressure testing 11.24.1 General 11.24.2 Testing of mechanical connector assemblies 11.24.3 Test pressure 11.24.4 Pressure-test medium

11.24.5 Safety during pressure tests 11.24.6 Pressure-test records 11.25 Corrosion control 11.25.1 General 11.25.2 External corrosion control — Protective coatings 11.25.3 External corrosion control — Cathodic protection systems 11.25.4 Internal corrosion control 11.25.5 Maintenance of cathodic protection systems 11.25.6 Records 11.26 Operating and maintenance 11.26.1 General 11.26.2 Manual of operating procedures 11.26.3 Contingency manual 11.26.4 Communication systems 11.26.5 Inspection and patrolling of pipelines 11.26.6 Leak detection 11.26.7 Valves 11.26.8 Control and safety devices 11.26.9 Safety 11.26.10 Repair of pipelines 11.26.11 Records 11.26.12 Pipeline deactivation and reactivation 12 Gas distribution systems 12.1 General 12.2 Applicability 12.3 Gas containing hydrogen sulphide 12.4 Design 12.4.1 Steel piping 12.4.2 Polyethylene piping — Design pressure 12.4.3 Polyethylene piping — Design limitations 12.4.4 Polyethylene piping — Design pressure of components 12.4.5 Copper pipe and tubing 12.4.6 Plastic piping materials — Other than polyethylene 12.4.7 Cover 12.4.8 Pipelines within road and railway rights-of-way 12.4.9 Limitations on operating pressure — General 12.4.10 Limitations on operating pressure — Piping within customers’ buildings 12.4.11 Pressure control and overpressure protection 12.4.12 Distribution system valves — General 12.4.13 Distribution system valves — Valve location and spacing 12.4.14 Distribution system valves — Service shutoffs 12.4.15 Customers’ meters and service regulators 12.4.16 Distribution systems within buildings 12.4.17 Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pipeline systems 12.5 Materials 12.5.1 General 12.5.2 Steel pipe, tubing, and components 12.5.3 Polyethylene pipe, tubing, and components

12.5.4 Cast iron valves 12.5.5 Polyamide (PA) piping systems 12.6 Installation 12.6.1 General 12.6.2 Steel piping 12.6.3 Ditch depth 12.6.4 Polyethylene piping — General 12.6.5 Polyethylene piping — Inspection and handling 12.6.6 Polyethylene piping — Direct burial 12.6.7 Polyethylene piping — Insertion in casing 12.6.8 Polyethylene piping — Bends and branches 12.6.9 Copper piping 12.6.10 Installation of service lines — Drainage 12.6.11 Installation of service lines into or under buildings 12.6.12 Installation of service lines — Additional installation requirements for polyethylene service lines 12.6.13 Trenchless installations 12.7 Joining 12.7.1 General 12.7.2 Steel pipe joints and connections — Essential changes for qualification of welding procedure specifications 12.7.3 Steel pipe joints and connections — Qualification of welders 12.7.4 Steel pipe joints and connections — Inspection of production welds 12.7.5 Steel pipe joints and connections — Inspection of tie-in welds 12.7.6 Steel pipe joints and connections — Steel pipe joints within buildings 12.7.7 Polyethylene pipe joints and connections — General 12.7.8 Polyethylene pipe joints and connections — Joining by heat fusion 12.7.9 Polyethylene pipe joints and connections — Joining by electrofusion 12.7.10 Polyethylene pipe joints and connections — Joining by mechanical methods 12.7.11 Joints in copper pipe and tubing 12.7.12 Service line connections 12.8 Pressure testing 12.8.1 Piping in distribution systems intended to be operated at pressures in excess of 700 kPa 12.8.2 Steel piping in distribution systems intended to be operated at pressures 700 kPa or less 12.8.3 Piping within customers’ buildings 12.8.4 Polyethylene piping 12.8.5 Test-head assemblies 12.9 Corrosion control 12.9.1 Steel piping 12.9.2 Copper piping 12.9.3 Corrosion inspection 12.10 Operating, maintenance, and upgrading 12.10.1 General 12.10.2 Marking of piping 12.10.3 Distribution system maintenance 12.10.4 Pressure recording for distribution systems 12.10.5 Valve maintenance 12.10.6 Pressure-control, pressure-limiting, and pressure-relieving devices 12.10.7 Repair procedures for steel distribution pipeline systems

12.10.8 Maintenance welding 12.10.9 Squeezing of polyethylene and polyamide pipe for pressure-control purposes 12.10.10 Maintenance and repair requirements for polyethylene, polyamide, and polyvinyl chloride pipe and tubing 12.10.11 Static electricity dissipation 12.10.12 Pressure upgrading of distribution piping 12.10.13 Pipeline emergencies 12.10.14 Ground disturbances 12.10.15 Class location 13 Reinforced composite, thermoplastic-lined, and polyethylene pipelines 13.1 Reinforced composite pipelines 13.1.1 General 13.1.2 Design 13.1.3 Materials 13.1.4 Installation 13.1.5 Joining 13.1.6 Joining personnel — training and qualification 13.1.7 Joining inspection 13.1.8 Pressure testing 13.1.9 Operation 13.1.10 Pipeline repairs 13.1.11 Deactivation or abandonment 13.2 Thermoplastic-lined pipelines 13.2.1 General 13.2.2 Design 13.2.3 Materials 13.2.4 Installation 13.2.5 Joining liners 13.2.6 Flange connections 13.2.7 Pressure testing 13.2.8 Operation and maintenance 13.3 Polyethylene pipelines 13.3.1 General 13.3.2 Design 13.3.3 Materials 13.3.4 Installation 13.3.5 Joining procedure and qualification 13.3.6 Joining personnel — Competency requirements 13.3.7 Joining inspection 13.3.8 Pressure testing 13.3.9 Operation and maintenance 14 Steam distribution pipelines and high temperature pipelines 14.1 General 14.1.1 Scope 14.1.2 Applicability 14.1.3 Multiple service pipelines 14.1.4 Alternate provisions

14.1.5 Definitions 14.2 Design 14.2.1 General 14.2.2 Straight pipe under internal pressure 14.2.3 Pipe bends 14.2.4 Limits of calculated stresses due to sustained loads and displacement strains 14.2.5 Expansion, flexibility, and support 14.2.6 Corrosion and erosion allowances 14.2.7 Wall thickness tolerance 14.3 Materials 14.3.1 General 14.3.2 Material testing 14.3.3 Fittings (excluding bends and transition pieces) 14.3.4 Flanges 14.3.5 Non-standard flanges and clamp connectors 14.3.6 Valves 14.3.7 Transition pieces 14.3.8 Pipe bends — General 14.3.9 Pipe bends — Qualification and production 14.3.10 Piping supports 14.4 Joining 14.5 Pressure testing 14.6 Corrosion control 14.7 Steam distribution pipelines — Commissioning and operating 15 Aluminum piping 15.1 General 15.2 Applicability 15.3 Design 15.3.1 Pressure design for aluminum pipe 15.3.2 Pressure design for components 15.3.3 Piping joints 15.3.4 Aluminum properties 15.3.5 Uncased railway crossings 15.3.6 Effects on pipelines in proximity to low-voltage alternating current lines and associated facilities 15.4 Materials 15.4.1 Design temperatures 15.4.2 Notch toughness 15.4.3 Aluminum pipe and components 15.5 Installation of aluminum piping 15.5.1 Bends and elbows 15.5.2 Attachment of test leads 15.5.3 Storage and handling of aluminum pipe and fittings during installation 15.5.4 Ambient temperature 15.5.5 Burial of coiled aluminum pipe by ploughing 15.5.6 Plain dents 15.6 Joining 15.6.1 General

15.6.2 Arc welding 15.6.3 High energy joining — General 15.6.4 High energy joining — Qualification of joining procedure specifications 15.6.5 High energy joining — Qualification of personnel 15.6.6 High energy joining — Inspection and testing of high energy joints for qualification of joining procedure specifications and personnel 15.6.7 High energy joining — Production welding 15.6.8 High energy joining — Inspection and testing of high energy joints 15.6.9 Mechanical interference fit joints 15.7 Pressure testing 15.8 Corrosion control 15.8.1 Test lead attachment 15.8.2 Installation of cathodic protection systems 15.8.3 Corrosive medium 15.9 Operating, maintenance, and upgrading 15.9.1 Evaluation of imperfections and repair of piping containing defects 15.9.2 Maintenance welding 15.9.3 Pipeline hot taps 15.10 Sour service 15.10.1 General 15.10.2 Material properties 15.10.3 Exposure to iron sulphides 15.10.4 Location factor 15.10.5 Sectionalizing valves 15.10.6 Nondestructive inspection 15.10.7 Integrity management program 15.10.8 Construction 15.10.9 Operating and maintenance 15.10.10 Records 16 Sour service pipelines 16.1 General 16.2 Sour service — Specific definition 16.3 Design 16.3.1 Design parameters 16.3.2 Design information 16.3.3 Stress design 16.3.4 Anchors and restraints 16.3.5 Threaded joints 16.3.6 Pipe-type and bottle-type holders and pipe-type storage vessels 16.4 Materials 16.4.1 Environmental cracking 16.4.2 Material provisions 16.4.3 Marking 16.4.4 Nonferrous materials 16.5 Construction 16.5.1 Deviations 16.5.2 Records 16.5.3 Inspection plan

16.6 Joining 16.6.1 Carbon equivalent 16.6.2 Change in carbon equivalent 16.6.3 Butt welds of unequal thickness 16.6.4 Weld hardness requirements 16.6.5 Deposited weld metal composition limitations 16.6.6 Alignment 16.6.7 Preheat 16.6.8 Backwelding 16.7 Corrosion and corrosion control 16.7.1 Supplemental mitigation requirements 16.7.2 Mitigation and monitoring program 16.7.3 Design and sizing of pigs 16.8 Operating and maintenance 16.8.1 Procedures 16.8.2 Records 16.8.3 Repair methods 16.8.4 Hydrogen charging 16.8.5 Direct deposition welding 16.8.6 Change management process 16.8.7 Changes in service conditions 16.8.8 Integrity management program 16.9 Gas and multiphase pipeline systems 16.9.1 Additional requirements 16.9.2 Design 16.9.3 Joining 16.9.4 Operating and maintenance 16.10 Additional requirements for gas pipeline systems only 16.10.1 General 16.10.2 Mechanical interference fit joints 16.10.3 Start-up corrosion mitigation 17 Composite-reinforced steel pipelines 17.1 General 17.2 Applicability 17.3 Specific definitions 17.4 Design 17.4.1 Stress distribution 17.4.2 Maximum operating pressure 17.4.3 Design pressure 17.4.4 External pressures and loadings 17.4.5 Stress limits 17.4.6 Design temperature 17.4.7 Engineering assessment 17.5 Materials and manufacture 17.5.1 Steel pipe 17.5.2 Fibre-reinforced composite 17.5.3 Composite-reinforced steel pipe manufacture 17.6 Installation

17.6.1 Field bending 17.6.2 Damage 17.6.3 Crossings 17.7 Joining 17.7.1 General 17.7.2 Joint reinforcement 17.7.3 Transitions to steel pipe 17.7.4 Qualification of joining procedure specifications 17.8 Pressure testing 17.9 Corrosion control 17.10 Operation and maintenance

Annex A (informative) — Safety and loss management system Annex B (informative) — Guidelines for risk assessment of pipeline systems Annex C (informative) — Limit states design Annex D (informative) — Guidelines for in-line inspection of pipelines Annex E (informative) — Recommended practice for liquid hydrocarbon pipeline leak detection Annexes F and G have been deleted Annex H (normative) — Pipeline failure records Annex I (informative) — Oilfield steam distribution pipelines — Alternate provisions Annex J (informative) — Recommended practice for determining the acceptability of imperfections in fusion welds using engineering critical assessment Annex K (informative) — Standards of acceptability for circumferential pipe butt welds based upon fracture mechanics principles Annex L (informative) — Alternative or supplementary test methods for coating property and characteristics evaluation Annex M (informative) — Guidance for system control, monitoring, and protection of hydrocarbon pipeline systems Annex N (informative) — Guidelines for pipeline system integrity management programs Annex O (informative) — Reliability-based design and assessment (RBDA) of onshore non-sour service natural gas transmission pipelines Annex P (informative) — Development and qualification and welding procedure specifications 665 Commentary

LITTLE P.ENG. FOR ENGINEERS TRAINING /  Engineering Consultant

3705 Fonda Way #18 Southeast Calgary, T2A 6G9

Canada

+1 (587) 802-4050

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