3.5 Restraint Modeling in CAESAR II
One of the most important parts of any finite element analysis, be it piping, structural, plate or volumetric, is the accurate description of the boundary conditions. This is also one of the areas of the model most ripe for potential errors, due to the large variety of restraint configurations available, and possible user myopia. It is extremely important that all degrees of freedom actually restrained by a pipe restraint be coded in as restrained in the pipe stress analysis model; it is equally important that only those degrees of freedom actually restrained be coded in as restrained. Furthermore, with today's modern programs, it is also often necessary to indicate the potential non-linear effects (friction, gaps closing, lift-off,change in stiffness, etc.) of a restraint as it goes through a state change as well. Finally, the analyst must also consider the effects on the system of explicit modeling of restraint stiffnesses as well.
Modeling And Analysis Of The Piping System
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