Storage tanks are containers that hold liquids, compressed gases or mediums used for the short- or long-term storage of heat or cold. The term can be used for reservoirs, and for manufactured containers. Large tanks tend to be vertical cylindrical, or to have rounded corners transition from vertical side wall to bottom profile, to easier withstand hydraulic hydro statically induced pressure of contained liquid. Industrial fuel storage tanks (known as petroleum tanks) can store various fluids. In general, they are used for storing non-organic and organic liquids. Storage tanks are available in many shapes: vertical and horizontal cylindrical; open top and closed top; flat bottom, cone bottom, slope bottom and dish bottom. Generally in refineries and especially for liquid fuels, there are fixed roof tanks, and floating roof tanks. Most container tanks for handling liquids during transportation are designed to handle varying degrees of pressure. Tanks for a particular fluid are chosen according to the flash-point of that substance.
Types of storage tanks for refineries
Fixed roof tanks are meant for liquids with very high flash points, (e.g. fuel oil, water, bitumen etc.) Cone roofs, dome roofs and umbrella roofs are usual. These are insulated to prevent the clogging of certain materials, wherein the heat is provided by steam coils within the tanks. Dome roof tanks are meant for tanks having slightly higher storage pressure than that of atmosphere (e.g. slop oil).
Floating roof tanks are broadly divided into external floating roof tanks (usually called floating roof tanks: FR Tanks) and internal floating roof types (IFR Tanks).
IFR tanks are used for liquids with low flash-points (e.g., ATF, MS. gasoline, ethanol). These tanks are nothing but cone roof tanks with a floating roof inside which travels up and down along with the liquid level. This floating roof traps the vapor from low flash-point fuels. Floating roofs are supported with legs or cables on which they rest. FR tanks do not have a fixed roof (it is open in the top) and has a floating roof only. Medium flash point liquids such as naphtha, kerosene, diesel, and crude oil are stored in these tanks.
One of the best types found in mining areas is the open roof type tank, usually to store ore slurries. These are the easiest storage tanks to build.
Other Types of Storage Tanks:
Industrial Chemical Storage Tanks
Industrial chemical storage tanks are employed for storing fertilizers, propane, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products (gasoline, diesel), crude oil, and other chemicals. Industrial chemical storage tanks are available in various shapes and sizes. These storage tanks are used for mixing, processing, static storage, and transport of finished chemical products as well as raw materials.
Industrial Oil Storage Tanks
Oil storage tanks are reservoirs or containers that hold oil temporarily during the different phases of processing into oil products of various types, or before it’s consumed or used. The materials and structure of industrial oil storage tanks are based on their application as well as the safety, environmental, and legal requirements of other kinds in the storage area.
Oil storage tanks in different sizes, shapes, materials, and types are employed from crude oil’s initial production to the distribution and refining of different petroleum oil products.
Modern industrial oil storage tanks come in the materials – carbon steel, stainless steel, reinforced concrete, and plastic. They are also carved on rock salt deposits that are mostly impermeable, for underground storage of oil. Various oil storage tank types have been built over time.
Industrial Water and Liquid Storage Tanks
Water and liquid storage tanks are used to store a variety of liquids like kerosene, jet A, diesel, gasoline, waste oil, and for underground burial and pressurized applications. Liquid storage tanks come in different types, each type having its own specific applications.
Industrial Plastic Storage Tanks
Water storage is important for domestic, residential, industrial, and commercial purposes. Plastic water storage tanks are one among the best ways for water storage conventionally. Plastic tanks are light-weight, highly durable, and occupy less area compared to cement and concrete tanks. Moreover, plastic tanks have greater flexibility compared to conventional storage tanks. Such advantages of plastic water tanks have made them a popular option.
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