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The variety of piping system materials currently in use is extensive and continually growing. The purpose of this section is to provide a brief overview of the common engineering properties of those materials and to describe how those properties inﬂuence the design process. For the most part, discussions of speciﬁc material characteristics will be limited to plain-carbon and low-alloy steel piping materials. Many of the concepts discussed, however, are applicable to virtually
The behavior of piping material can be understood and predicted by studying a number of properties of the material. Appreciation of how a material will perform must extend all the way down to the atomic components of the material. Metals are crystalline in structure, composed of atoms in precise locations within a space lattice. The smallest component of the crystalline structure is called a unit cell, the smallest repeating building block of the material. For example, iron a
The selection of materials for piping applications is a process that requires consideration of material characteristics appropriate for the required service. Material selected must be suitable for the flow medium and the given operating conditions of temperature and pressure safely during the intended design life of the product. Mechanical strength must be appropriate for long-term service, and resist operational variables such as thermal or mechanical cycling. Extremes in ap