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3.5.2 Non-linear Effects

A restraint is said to be non-linear if its response is not constant throughout its entire load range. Examples of non-linear effects are friction, one-way restraint, gaps, large rotation restraints, and bi-linear stiffnesses. A system with non-linear effects cannot be solved explicitly by the structural algorithm used; CAESAR II solves them through iteration until an acceptable solution is found. Problems with a large number of non-linear restraints may take quite a while to converge, or may not converge at all. In this case, the user must judiciously review the system in order to determine which of these effects may be excluded, or which convergence tolerances may be changed.

Various non-linear effects are discussed in 3.5.2.1 Friction, 3.5.2.2 One-Way Restraints, 3.5.2.3 Gaps, 3.5.2.4 Large Rotation Restraints, 3.5.2.5 Bi-linear Stiffnesses

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Modeling And Analysis Of The Piping System


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