Summarizing the major characteristics of static versus dynamic loads:
1 - load varies slowly, or does not vary, with time (weight, thermal expansion, settlement, spring loads, etc.)
2 - system (internal forces and restraint loads) always has time to fully react to the applied load
3 - system is always in equilibrium (sum offerees and moments on system are zero)
4 - with no unbalanced forces, system remains at rest
5 - induced system reactions (internal forces and restraint loads) are equal to applied loads
load varies quickly with time (earthquake, fluid hammer, vibration, relief valve, etc.)
system (internal forces and restraint loads) may not have time to fully react to the applied load before it changes
system is not in equilibrium (sum of forces and moments on system are not zero)
with unbalanced forces, system moves, according to F = MA
induced system reactions (internal forces and restraint loads) are not equal to applied loads, and may be much higher or much lower
The implications of these points are discussed in the following sections.
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